Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments

Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments

For your Discussion this week, you will compare types of diabetes including drug treatments for type 1 (previously called “insulin-dependent” or “juvenile-onset” diabetes), type 2, & gestational diabetes. When writing your paper, please ensure that you provide the appropriate dose, route and frequency of administration when you describe one type of drug used to treat the diabetes you selected. When posting responses to your colleagues, respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different type of diabetes than you did.

As discussed previously, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and recommendations from reputable peer-reviewed journals are fundamental to clinical practice, as they will assist with clinical decision making. I have attached the applicable ADA guideline below for your reference.

 

Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Each year, 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2019). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations.

For this Discussion, you compare types of diabetes, including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.

 

To Prepare
Review the Resources for this module and reflect on differences between types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Select one type of diabetes to focus on for this Discussion.
Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients, including effects of drug treatments.
By Day 3 of Week 5

Post a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples.

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Solution to Diabetes and Drug Treatment

Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by a malfunction in glucose metabolism. Type 1, type 2, juvenile, and gestational diabetes are some of the most common types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is marked by inadequate insulin production by the pancreatic beta cells. This kind of diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system assaults and kills the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas (Plows et al., 2018). Patients with this kind of diabetes are unable to respond to blood sugar with insulin and must thus be controlled with insulin.

Type 2 diabetes develops over time as a result of bad nutrition patterns. Patients with type 2-diabetes have often taken huge quantities of simple sugars and saturated fats, thus overexposing their bodies to the insulin-sensitizing milieu (Zheng et al.,2018). As a consequence, insulin sensitivity plummets and the pancreas became ineffective at dealing with high blood glucose levels.

Gestational diabetes evolves during the pregnancy period as a result of a hormonal obstruction at the placenta that prevents insulin from efficiently lowering blood glucose. This causes the mother’s sugar levels to rise; the issue subsides after pregnancy (Johns et al., 2018). Ultimately, juvenile diabetes develops at any age when children’s pancreatic beta cells fail to produce insulin. Type 1 diabetes is the consequence of juvenile diabetes.

Anti-Diabetic: Metformin

Metformin, a Biguanides, is often used to manage type II diabetes. Although the precise mechanism is unknown, the drug reduces sugar synthesis in the liver whilst increasing insulin sensitivity in muscle cells. Metformin is often taken orally and must be administered with meals to alleviate gastrointestinal adverse effects (Luo et al., 2018). Metformin is usually initiated at 500 mg after every twelve hours. Patients receiving treatment for type II diabetes must restrict their calorie consumption by monitoring their sugar levels, restricting saturated, and taking minimal amounts of calories at a time.

Long- And Short-Term Impact

Metformin, depending on the dose, may cut A1C by 1 to 1.5 percent. Whilst it’s not primarily renal toxic, it might result in lactic acidosis in patients with pre-existing diseases such as liver failure. Long-term type 2 diabetes can lead to diabetic complications such as hypertension, retinopathy, and end-stage renal failure (Corremans et al., 2019).

 

References

Corremans, R., Vervaet, B. A., D’Haese, P. C., Neven, E., & Verhulst, A. (2019). Metformin: a candidate drug for renal diseases. International journal of molecular sciences, 20(1), 42.

Johns, E. C., Denison, F. C., Norman, J. E., & Reynolds, R. M. (2018). Gestational diabetes mellitus: mechanisms, treatment, and complications. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 29(11), 743-754.

Plows, J. F., Stanley, J. L., Baker, P. N., Reynolds, C. M., & Vickers, M. H. (2018). The pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus. International journal of molecular sciences, 19(11), 3342.

Luo, F., Das, A., Chen, J., Wu, P., Li, X., & Fang, Z. (2019). Metformin in patients with and without diabetes: a paradigm shift in cardiovascular disease management. Cardiovascular diabetology, 18(1), 1-9.

Zheng, Y., Ley, S. H., & Hu, F. B. (2018). Global aetiology and epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 14(2), 88-98.

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