Emerging Therapies Assignment Paper
Emerging Therapies Assignment Paper
Cancer has been declared as a global epidemic, which has continuously claimed the lives of innocent persons. However, most of the deaths witnessed in the past may be attributed to the lack of more information concerning how the disease works in the human body until the point where a person dies. Things have continued to change as scientists and researchers have dedicated their lives to understanding how the killer disease works, which has resulted in the development of new methods of treatment over the past ten years. There are several hallmarks responsible for the progression as well as mortality of cancer. They can be categorized into two different groups; the original hallmarks and the newly identified hallmarks such as genome instability with mutations. Genome instability is widely known because it is considered as the foundation of a majority of if not every cancer known to the world today Emerging Therapies Assignment Paper.
Genome instability and mutations like any other hallmark rely on the change of the structure of the DNA so that it can become functional. Cells tend to change their behaviors, for instance, through dying, growing, and moving among other behaviors. Notably, these behavioral changes occur due to two primary reasons. They include the change in the levels of proteins and the change in the functions of proteins. Maciejowski, John, and de Lange (175) suggest that the foundation of these changes is attributed to the events that occur and can either alter the genome or result in it being unstable. Mostly, there are two main kinds of events, which lead to the genome being unstable. They include the epigenetic alterations, which impact expression as well as DNA mutations. Epigenetic modifications are the events that neither changes the bases nor the structure of the DNA but result in the alteration of the protein expression. Epigenetic events are responsible for the alternation of expression in several genes within the chromosome (Kantidakis et al. 414). It is this alteration of the protein expression that results in the change of behavior within the cells, which consequently leads to cancer. Subsequently, this hallmark is clinically relevant because it is associated with the development of almost every cancer that exists today.
Numerous therapies have emerged as more information concerning cancer has developed. One of the new therapies or treatments is the use of minimally invasive surgery. When conducting a minimally invasive surgery, the surgeon makes some small cuts, which the surgeon uses to insert a camera in the form of a long thin tube referred to as a laparoscope. Through the use of the camera, images from within the body are projected onto a monitor, which enables the surgeon to see what he or she is doing (Hamdy et al. 1416). Through the cuts, the surgeon, with the help of a specialized tool removes the tumor alongside some healthy tissues. Surgery has helped solve the problem of cancer located within one area since it can ultimately be removed. Additionally, there are cancerous tumors that cannot be entirely removed since their removal could damage a particular organ within the body. Nonetheless, with the removal of certain parts of the tumor, more treatment can be used, which previously could not have worked. Subsequently, this form of therapy is beneficial since it can result in the removal of the whole tumor or can enable other treatments to be used as noted by Donovan et al. (1429). Nevertheless, the main downfall of surgery is the damaging of organs, or the patient could take a lot of time to heal, which could result in other complications Emerging Therapies Assignment Paper.
Donovan, Jenny L., et al. "Patient-reported outcomes after monitoring, surgery, or radiotherapy for prostate cancer." New England Journal of Medicine 375.15 (2016): 1425-1437.
Hamdy, Freddie C., et al. "10-year outcomes after monitoring, surgery, or radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer." New England Journal of Medicine 375.15 (2016): 1415-1424.
Kantidakis, Theodoros, et al. "Mutation of cancer driver MLL2 results in transcription stress and genome instability." Genes & Development 30.4 (2016): 408-420.
Maciejowski, John, and Titia de Lange. "Telomeres in cancer: tumour suppression and genome instability." Nature reviews Molecular cell biology 18.3 (2017): 175 Emerging Therapies Assignment Paper.