Write 2 feedbacks essay 1&essay 2
Must be substantive and include literature support each feedback.
discussion board 1 post 2
In this article, the authors mentioned the use of tumor markers in diagnosing cancer has increased largely with the rapid expansion of techniques of detection and identification of new markers (Sharma, 2009). There are two main types of tumor markers that have different uses in cancer care, which are circulating tumor markers and tumor tissue markers. Circulating tumor markers can be found in the blood, urine, stool, or other bodily fluids of some patients with cancer. Tumor tissue markers are found in the actual tumors themselves, typically in a sample of the tumor that is removed during a biopsy. Tumor tissue markers are used to diagnose, stage, classify cancer, estimate prognosis, and select an appropriate treatment (National Cancer Institute, 2020).
According to Nagpal, Singh, Chauhan & Zaidi, tumor markers were first developed to test for cancer in people without symptoms, very few tumor markers have been found to be helpful in this way because most tumor markers have not been shown to detect cancer much earlier than they would have been found otherwise. (Nagpal, Singh, Chauhan & Zaidi, 2016)
In my opinion screening tests require high sensitivity to detect early-stage disease. These tests must have sufficient specificity to protect patients with false-positive results from unwarranted diagnostic evaluations. Nevertheless, tumor markers can play a crucial role in detecting disease and assessing response to therapy in selected groups of patients. In monitoring patients for disease recurrence, tumor marker levels should be determined only when there is a potential for meaningful treatment.
Nagpal, M., Singh, S., Singh, P., Chauhan, P., & Zaidi, M. A. (2016). Tumor markers: A diagnostic tool. National Journal of maxillofacial surgery, 7(1), 17–20. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-5950.196135
National Cancer Institute, (2020). Tumor markers. Available through https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/diagnosis-staging/diagnosis/tumor-markers-fact-sheet#how-are-tumor-markers-used-in-cancer-care.
Sharma S. (2009). Tumor markers in clinical practice: General principles and guidelines. Indian journal of medical and pediatric oncology: official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Pediatric Oncology, 30(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-5851.56328
Describe the physical, mechanical, and biochemical barriers that provide the first line of defense against damage and infection.
The immune system has several approaches in protecting the body from antigens, which includes the innate and the adaptive defenses. Innate defenses consist of natural barriers as the first line of defense and the inflammatory response as the second line of defense. The first line of defense are the physical, mechanical, and biochemical barriers found on the body’s surfaces. These barriers provide protection against tissue injury and infection.
The physical barriers consist of tightly associated epithelial cells of the skin, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory tracts (McCance & Huether, 2019). The skin is a thick, impermeable layer of epidermal cells overlying a highly vascular dermis (Story, 2014). While the skin protects against microbe invasion, some can penetrate the physical barriers. These pathogens can be removed mechanically by sloughing dead skin cells, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, and urination. Additionally, the epithelial surfaces’ sebaceous glands secrete antibacterial and antifungal fatty and lactic acids that provide biochemical barriers to trap and destroy pathogens. (McCance and Huether, 2019). These barriers include mucus, sweat, saliva, tears, and earwax. Moreover, the normal microbiome contributes to innate protection as well.
The first line of defense is not entirely impenetrable. An antigen can penetrate through tiny breaks on the epithelial surface. When these surface barriers are breached, the inflammatory response as the second line of defense is activated to protect against further damage and infection and promote healing (McCance and Huether, 2019).
McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., Rote, N.S. (2019) Pathophysiology: The biologic
basis for disease in adults and children. (8th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO.: Mosby Elsevier
Story, L. (2014). Pathophysiology: A Practical Approach (2nd Ed.). Burlington,
Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
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