Health Programming with Diverse Population

Health Programming with Diverse PopulationHealth Programming with Diverse Population

Week 7 | Health Programming With Diverse Population…
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Assignment Research Paper

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Due Date: Nov 09, 2016 23:59:59 Max Points: 200

Details:
For this assignment, you are to select a target population with a specific health issue and research how social, cultural, and behavioral factors of the target population contribute to health outcomes associated with the health issue. The 1,200-1,500 word Research Paper must including the following:
Introduction: Provide a concise synopsis of the purpose of the paper and a general introduction to the target population and the health issue.

Target Population: Provide a description about the target population that you have selected; provide demographic information about the population; and discuss relevant social, cultural, and behavior factors that affect this population.

Health Issue: Provide information discussing the health issue that you have selected; include a history of knowledge and public health understanding regarding the health issue; how it has evolved; biological and epidemiological information related to the disease; and major social, cultural, and behavior factors that affect or relate to the health issue.

Relationship Between Health Issue and Target Population: Analyze how social, cultural, and behavior factors in the target population contribute to the health issue; and identify what factors/characteristics are positive or negative and which behaviors/practices/beliefs serve as risk factors or protective factors.
Current Strategies/Interventions: Discuss existing programming to prevent or reduce the health issue within the target population and challenges to interventions and programming.

Recommendations/Conclusion: Make recommendations to resolve the health issue within the target population based on your review of current literature and what you have learned throughout the course.
Minimum of Five References: Use the GCU Library to locate at least five resources, including at least two peer-reviewed articles.
Refer to the “Academic Writing Guidelines Resource.”
Be prepared to present a rough draft of your Research Paper for peer review at the beginning of Topic 6.
Use the completed “Peer Review Guide” from Topic 6 in making revisions and modifications to the final draft of your Research Paper.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

Health Programming with Diverse Population

HLT515.v10R.Academic Writing Guidelines Resource_student.docx

Apply Rubrics
Research Paper

1 Unsatisfactory
0.00%
2 Less than Satisfactory
65.00%
3 Satisfactory
75.00%
4 Good
85.00%
5 Excellent
100.00%
100.0 %
Content
10.0 %

Introduction
Purpose of the paper is either not present or not evident.
Purpose of the paper is insufficiently developed and/or vague. Briefly mentions the purpose of the paper, target population, and health issue.
Purpose of the paper is present, but lacks depth and/or clarity. Outlines the purpose of the paper, target population, and health issue.
Purpose of the paper is present and clearly evident. Introduces the purpose of the paper and general introduction to target population and health issue.
Purpose of the paper is present and comprehensive, forecasting further development in paper. Introduces the purpose of the paper and general introduction to target population and health issue.
40.0 %

Multiple component assignment (Criteria for Components: Target Population, Health Issue, Relationship Between Health Issue and Target Population, and Current Strategies/Interventions)
Includes little knowledge about the topic. Subject knowledge is not evident. Analysis of the criteria is not outlined or is outlined poorly.
Includes little knowledge about the components with few supporting details and examples. A large portion of the assignment criteria was not addressed Little subject knowledge is evident. Ignores or superficially evaluates the criteria. Draws unwarranted or fallacious conclusions.
Includes knowledge about the components with supporting details and examples. A small portion of the assignment criteria were not addressed. Some subject knowledge is evident. Surface level of evaluation of the content is offered.
Includes essential knowledge about the components with supporting details and examples. A few areas of the assignment criteria were not addressed. Subject knowledge appears to be good. Analysis is direct, competent, and appropriate to the criteria. Justifies reasons and claims.
Covers components in-depth with extensive details and examples. Subject knowledge is exceptional. Thoughtfully analyzes and evaluates major points of the criteria. Draws warranted, judicious, nonfallacious conclusions. Fully justifies reasons and claims with supportive examples and details.
10.0 %

Conclusion
Summary of the major points of the paper is either not present or not evident to the reader.
Summary of the major points of the paper is present, but it is vague and/or poorly developed.
Summary of the major points of the paper is present, but it is cursory and lacks depth.
Summary of the paper is evident to the reader. Makes recommendations to resolve the health issue within the target population. Arguments presented follow logical progression and support claims.
Summary of paper is clearly evident to the reader. Makes recommendations to resolve the health issue within the target population based current literature. Arguments support all claims with clarity, order, and richness of detail.
10.0 %

Research
No outside sources were used to support the assignment.
Few outside sources were used to support the assignment. Limited research is apparent.
Few outside sources were used to support the assignment. Limited research is apparent.
Research is timely and relevant, and addresses all of the issues stated in the assignment criteria.
Research is supportive of the rationale presented. Sources are distinctive. Addresses all of the issues stated in the assignment criteria.
7.0 %

Thesis Development and Purpose
Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.
Thesis and/or main claim are insufficiently developed and/or vague; purpose is not clear.
Thesis and/or main claim are apparent and appropriate to purpose.
Thesis and/or main claim are clear and forecast the development of the paper. It is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.
Thesis and/or main claim are comprehensive. The essence of the paper is contained within the thesis. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
8.0 %

Argument Logic and Construction
Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.
Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable
Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.
Argument shows logical progression. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.
Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.
5.0 %

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)
Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice and/or sentence construction are used.
Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, and/or word choice are present.
Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.
Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used.
Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
5.0 %

Paper Format (Use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)
Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.
Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent.
Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.
Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style.
All format elements are correct.
5.0 %

Research Citations (In-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes, and reference page listing and formatting, as appropriate to assignment and style)
No reference page is included. No citations are used.
Reference page is present. Citations are inconsistently used.
Reference page is included and lists sources used in the paper. Sources are appropriately documented, although some errors may be present
Reference page is present and fully inclusive of all cited sources. Documentation is appropriate and citation style is usually correct.
In-text citations and a reference page are complete and correct. The documentation of cited sources is free of error.
100 %

guild lines

Academic Writing Guidelines Resource

Description Guidelines and Examples
Organization and Structure Organization is the internal structure of a piece of writing, the thread of central meaning that ties the piece together from beginning to ending.
A piece of solid academic writing:
• Begins with an introduction regarding the piece’s primary purpose or theme, which prepares the reader for what is to come (i.e., thesis statement).
• Ends with a conclusion that summarizes the key points of the piece, draws conclusions, and generally provides closure for the reader.

The body of a piece of academic writing can be organized around a variety of structures.
Examples of organizing structures:
• Main idea/thesis, with supporting details/evidence
• Comparison-contrast
• Deductive logic
• Point-by-point analysis
• Development of central theme
• Chronology or history (e.g., of an event, process, era)
Solid academic writing uses transitional words and phrases to provide logical connections and sequencing. Examples of transitional words:
• Addition: also, again, as well as, besides
• Consequence: accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason.
• Generalizing: as a rule, as usual, generally
• Illustration: for example, for instance, for one thing.
• Emphasis: above all, chiefly, with attention to, especially, particularly
• Similarity: comparatively, coupled with, correspondingly
• Exception: aside from, barring, besides, except, excluding
• Restatement: in essence, in other words, namely
• Comparison: in contrast, by the same token, conversely, instead, likewise
• Summarizing: after all, all in all, briefly, in any case, in any event, in conclusion, in short, in summary, finally
Conventions and
Mechanics Description Guidelines and Examples
Solid academic writing is characterized by the proper use of conventions and mechanics, including: spelling, grammar, paragraphing, capitalization, and punctuation.
Examples of conventions and mechanics in academic writing:
• Proper use of capitalization, punctuation, and quotation marks.
• Subject/verb agreement.
• Proper use of pronouns.
• Technical abbreviations, acronyms, and units of measurement.
• Paragraphs that are indented; consisting of three or more sentences.
• Use of title page, headers, and footers.
• Avoid the use of: contractions, incomplete and run-on sentences.
Word Choice and Usage In solid academic writing, the use of language is precise, with correct word usage and appropriate word choice.

Guidelines for language use:
• In good descriptive writing, strong word choice clarifies and expands ideas.
• In persuasive writing, careful word choice moves the reader to a new vision of possibilities.
• Effective word choice depends less on an exceptional vocabulary and more on the skill to use everyday words well.
• Use a thesaurus for new words with more specific meaning: For example, “pronounce” for “say,” or “embarkation” for “start.” In academic writing, “it” as the subject of a sentence is not acceptable. Make sure the reader knows what the subject of each sentence is.

Research and Resources In solid academic writing, it is at times necessary to support your thesis or argument with outside research. Use of proper resources for accurate and thoughtful support of any argument or position is essential in academic writing. Some strongly recommended sources for student use are:
GCU Library for search engines located at: http://library.gcu.edu

For instructions on how to use the GCU library, access and view our tutorials at:
http://my.gcu.edu/Academics/Library/Pages/Help.aspx

For good research techniques, view the tutorials in the Student Success Center.

Other Resources:
• Online Writing Lab at Purdue University: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
• Google Scholar: http://scholar.google.com/schhp?hl=en&tab=ws
• ProQuest: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/
• Lexis/Nexis
• Northern Light Search: http://www.nlsearch.com/home.php
• INFOMINE Scholarly Internet Research Connections: http://infomine.ucr.edu/

Additional Resources:
1) “Mechanics of Writing”: http://ptgmedia.pearsoncmg.com/images/0131428993/samplechapter/0131428993_ch01.pdf
2) “Key Terms in Academic Writing”: http://www.esc.edu/esconline/across_esc/writerscomplex.nsf/0/388b46277676ac8b852569cf00615929?OpenDocument
3) “Academic Writing Skills”: http://www.yourdictionary.com/dictionary-articles/Academic-Writing-Skills.html

 

Academic Writing Guidelines Resource

Description Guidelines and Examples
Organization and
Structure Organization is the internal structure of a piece of writing, the thread of central meaning that ties the piece together from beginning to ending.
A piece of solid academic writing:
• Begins with an introduction regarding the piece’s primary purpose or theme, which prepares the reader for what is to come (i.e., thesis statement).
• Ends with a conclusion that summarizes the key points of the piece, draws conclusions, and generally provides closure for the reader.

The body of a piece of academic writing can be organized around a variety of structures.
Examples of organizing structures:
• Main idea/thesis, with supporting details/evidence
• Comparison-contrast
• Deductive logic
• Point-by-point analysis
• Development of central theme
• Chronology or history (e.g., of an event, process, era)
Solid academic writing uses transitional words and phrases to provide logical connections and sequencing. Examples of transitional words:
• Addition: also, again, as well as, besides
• Consequence: accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason.
• Generalizing: as a rule, as usual, generally
• Illustration: for example, for instance, for one thing.
• Emphasis: above all, chiefly, with attention to, especially, particularly
• Similarity: comparatively, coupled with, correspondingly
• Exception: aside from, barring, besides, except, excluding
• Restatement: in essence, in other words, namely
• Comparison: in contrast, by the same token, conversely, instead, likewise
• Summarizing: after all, all in all, briefly, in any case, in any event, in conclusion, in short, in summary, finally
Conventions and
Mechanics Description Guidelines and Examples
Solid academic writing is characterized by the proper use of conventions and mechanics, including: spelling, grammar, paragraphing, capitalization, and punctuation.
Examples of conventions and mechanics in academic writing:
• Proper use of capitalization, punctuation, and quotation marks.
• Subject/verb agreement.
• Proper use of pronouns.
• Technical abbreviations, acronyms, and units of measurement.
• Paragraphs that are indented; consisting of three or more sentences.
• Use of title page, headers, and footers.
• Avoid the use of: contractions, incomplete and run-on sentences.
Word Choice and Usage In solid academic writing, the use of language is precise, with correct word usage and appropriate word choice.

Guidelines for language use:
• In good descriptive writing, strong word choice clarifies and expands ideas.
• In persuasive writing, careful word choice moves the reader to a new vision of possibilities.
• Effective word choice depends less on an exceptional vocabulary and more on the skill to use everyday words well.
• Use a thesaurus for new words with more specific meaning: For example, “pronounce” for “say,” or “embarkation” for “start.” In academic writing, “it” as the subject of a sentence is not acceptable. Make sure the reader knows what the subject of each sentence is.

Research and Resources In solid academic writing, it is at times necessary to support your thesis or argument with outside research. Use of proper resources for accurate and thoughtful support of any argument or position is essential in academic writing. Some strongly recommended sources for student use are:
GCU Library for search engines located at: http://library.gcu.edu

For instructions on how to use the GCU library, access and view our tutorials at:
http://my.gcu.edu/Academics/Library/Pages/Help.aspx

For good research techniques, view the tutorials in the Student Success Center.

Other Resources:
• Online Writing Lab at Purdue University: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
• Google Scholar: http://scholar.google.com/schhp?hl=en&tab=ws
• ProQuest: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/
• Lexis/Nexis
• Northern Light Search: http://www.nlsearch.com/home.php
• INFOMINE Scholarly Internet Research Connections: http://infomine.ucr.edu/

Additional Resources:
1) “Mechanics of Writing”: http://ptgmedia.pearsoncmg.com/images/0131428993/samplechapter/0131428993_ch01.pdf
2) “Key Terms in Academic Writing”: http://www.esc.edu/esconline/across_esc/writerscomplex.nsf/0/388b46277676ac8b852569cf00615929?OpenDocument
3) “Academic Writing Skills”: http://www.yourdictionary.com/dictionary-articles/Academic-Writing-Skills.html

PART 1 — PEER REVIEW: WORK WITH THIS PAPER FOR THE RESEARCH
Peer Review Research Paper
This paper is a review of deadly diseases that affects African American Blacks in United States. A lot of diseases strikes blacks American harder and more often they do white Americans, for this paper our focus will be on Diabetes as one of the disease condition that affects African American blacks than the white (Philips, et al., 2006).
African Americans of low socioeconomic status incur additional stressors (eg, financial insecurity, lack of health care) that affect these patients both psychologically and physiologically and limit their proclivity for making healthy lifestyle choices and successfully controlling the disease. Further, African Americans report higher levels of life dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms than Caucasians, making them more prone to engage in poor diabetes self-management behaviors and medication adherence (WebMD, 2010).
Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism — the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes(mebwed,2005).
There are a lot of factors contributing to all these problem, like health care disparities, heighten, African Americans and white Americans. Diabetes is about 60% more common in African American than in White Americans. African Americans are about 2.5 times more likely to have limb amputation from diabetes than another race.
Recommendations
African American blacks need a lot of education and awareness in the diagnosis, signs/symptoms and treatment of diabetes. They should understand that diet is very effective in the management of diabetes. The blacks need to wake up, have a good education and job that can afford the cost of their treatment.
Diabetes is controllable in the society we are today, I am using this medium to encourage our black people to take care of themselves about diabetes and do a good follow-up with medical recommendations.

References

. Phillips LS, Ziemer DC, Doyle JP, et al. An endocrinologist-supported intervention aimed at providers improves diabetes management in a primary care site: improving primary care of African Americans with diabetes (IPCAAD) 7. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(10):2352-2360
WebM (D 2010). Retrieved From http://webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/features/why-7-deadly-diseases-strike-blacks-most#1
.WebMD (2005). http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/guide/default.htm

 

SOLUTION

Health Programming with Diverse Population

Introduction

Diabetes is a medical condition that involves a series of diseases that are associated with the blood sugar of the victim. Diabetes is also known as diabetes mellitus. There are two commonly known diabetes; Type 1 and Type 2. Type one is related to the attacking and destruction of the cells responsible for insulin production by the immune system.

Type2 diabetes is whereby the body cells are inhibited from producing enough insulin to be used in the breakdown of sugar.  The disease is a lifetime condition that affects the majority of the population in the world. Type 2 is experienced mostly while type 1 is hardly experienced. There is diabetes referred to as gestational diabetes that mostly affects pregnant women due to high levels of blood sugar and cannot to produce adequate insulin for their absorption.

This paper seeks to discuss the issue of diabetes in the African American population in the United States. According to research done by Philip and colleagues in 2006, the black community in the country is most likely to be involved in the disease than other ethnic groups such as white Americans. Therefore, the black society of America under the category of low-income earners will be featured in this discussion to help the reader understand the rationale for the frequency of the disease in the said population.

As WebMD, 2010 suggests, the African American associated with low social and economic state are likely to have the condition than their counterparts. These individuals have low income and lack of healthcare facilities to help them get emergence treatment or balanced diet to help reduce the condition.

For example, the patients from the low income household are affected both psychologically and physically and therefore limited in their proclivity for making health lifestyle decisions and control the infection successfully.

The research by WebMD 2010 indicates that the black community has the higher levels of life dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms than the whites and therefore, they more prone to engage in poor diabetes self-management behaviors and medication adherence. The figure below is used to show the how the blacks are affected by diabetes. This information is from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Sciences Office of Minority Group in 2014.

 

Age-adjusted prevalence of persons 18 years of age and over with diabetes, 2014
Non-Hispanic Black Non-Hispanic White Non-Hispanic Black/Non-
Hispanic White Ratio
13.4 7.3 1.8

 

13.2 percent of the black community aged 20 years and above were diagnosed with diabetes by 2014 therefore they are 1.7 times likely to have the disease as compared to the non-Hispanic whites.

Diabetes

Diabetes is a life-threatening condition that as affected the African American population in the United States. It is hard to note one has diabetes until they start having the complication and get diagnosed. It can be controlled by effective methods to reduce its risks such as succumbing to it. According to Mebwed, 2005 diabetes is a metabolism disorder associated to the digestion system where the enzymes (insulin) responsible for breaking down glucose are inhibited from this function.

The condition is caused by some health conditions such as obesity and intake of large amount of sugar foods. Type 1 DM is associated to low sugar in the blood and losing of the beta cells involved in the production of insulin. The cells are produced in the inslets of Langerhans in the pancreas. This leads to deficiency of insulin and to type 1 DM which is categorized as immune-mediated or idiopathic. On the other hand type 2 DM is caused by resistance of insulin in the breakdown of sugar. The resistance can be said to be caused by insulin receptor and is the common diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes and African American

African Americans are more likely to have diabetes than the Caucasians. Further, they are known to undergo through other complications of the condition such as end-stage renal disease and lower exceedingly amputations.  However, they have similar or lower rates of cholesterol as the whites community and highly likely to experience high blood pressure.The risk of being diagnosed with diabetes and obesity is related to the generic traits of the African American society.

They experience the complications due to the poor glycemic control and the racial disparity healthcare facilities I the country. To improve the condition among this population strategies that are culturally sensitive should be implemented, also a structure diseases management plan should be established and the health professionals are required in diabetic awareness.

It has been reported that by 2010 80 percent of the African American are likely to have diabetes than the Whites adults. In 2010, 4.2 times of the blacks community is diagnosed with diabetes in comparison with the non-Hispanic whites.

This statistics changed in 2012 as reported by the U.S Department of Health and Human Sciences Offices of the Minority Group whereby it was reported than the population under study was 3.5 times more likely to be hospitalized for being amputated on the lower limb as compared to the White community. However, in 2013 the African American diabetes cases were twice that of the Caucasian society in the United States.

The figure below presents data on gender and the likely to get diabetes as per 2014 in relation to the African Americans and the Whites in the United States.

Age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes per 100 population (2014)
  African Americans White African Americans/
White Ratio
Men 9.2 6.3 1.5
Women 9.9 5.3 1.9
Total 9.5 5.8 1.6

 

The figure below shows the rates of diagnosis of diabetes among different ethnic groups in the United States.

In research done in 2016, 60 percent of the African Americans are likely to be diagnosed with diabetes than the non-Hispanic Whites in the country. The population under study is 2.5 times likely to be amputated off their limb than other races.

Age-Adjusted Diabetes Death Rates per 100,000 (2013)
  Non-Hispanic Black Non-Hispanic White Non-Hispanic Black/Non-
Hispanic White Ratio
Male 45.1 23.1 2.0
Female 35.2 14.9 2.4
Total 39.5 18.6 2.1

 

The above data represents the mortality rate due to diabetes on the African Americans and the Caucasians. The data has been analyzed in accordance to the gender of the different populations in the United States.

Recommendations

The black community needs health care awareness on the disease. They should be educated on the signs and symptoms of the condition and how they can get treatment. Further, the teaching should also include the diet and physical exercise.

The government should establish healthcare facilities near the community which is currently experiencing healthcare disparities.

Employment should e created for the community to help them be financially capable to cater for the cost of the health care products and services.

The African Americans should frequently visit the healthcare facilities for check up to get treatment earlier enough to prevent other complications.

References

American Diabetes Association. (2012, May 11). Statistics About Diabetes: American Diabetes Association®. Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/

Diabetes Health Centre. (2014, March 14). WebMD Diabetes Center: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Tests, and Treatments. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/

NHS. (2014, April 4). Diabetes – NHS Choices. Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Diabetes/Pages/Diabetes.aspx

Stehouwer, C. D., &Schaper, N. (2009).Diabetes. Oxford: Clinical Pub.

U.S Department of Health and Human Sciences of Minority Groups. (2016, September 16). Diabetes – The Office of Minority Health. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=4&lvlID=18

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