NRP/543: Management Of Pediatric And Adolescent Week 7 Discussion Populations Response 1 & 2 – M-CHAT Tool

NRP/543: Management Of Pediatric And Adolescent
Wk 7 Discussion Populations Response 1 & 2 – M-CHAT Tool
Post 1 reply to each of the following discussion responses from classmates or your faculty member. Be constructive and professional.
• Each reply must be a minimum of 175 words each.
•You MUST include a question with every post response to receive full credit.
• Each response must have at least 1 scholarly peer reviewed reference or textbook listed
below under references.
• Must cite and list references in APA 7th edition format.
Textbook for NRP/543:
Burns, C. E., Dunn, A. M., Brady, M. A., Barber Starr, N., Blosser, C. G., & Garzon, D. L. (2017). Pediatric primary care (6th ed.). Elsevier.
Wk 7 DQ Response 1. Please reply as instructed above.
• Class: The CDC has information on screening for ASD at https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/act/documents/screening-autism_508.pdf.
• One of the primary considerations in performing the screening is cultural competencies. What modifications in the questions or screening should be done for individuals of other cultures?
Reference
Ben-Sasson, A., Robins, D. L., & Yom-Tov, E. (2018). Risk Assessment for Parents Who Suspect Their Child Has Autism Spectrum Disorder: Machine Learning Approach. Journal of medical Internet research, 20(4), e134. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.9496.
Wk 7 DQ Response 2. Please reply as instructed above.
• Class: What are some effective treatments for ASD?

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Modifications in Screening for Other Cultures

Different cultures have different ways and forms to convey and deliver information. Aspects such as eye contact, gestures formulation, learning and cognitive abilities play a major role in the stipulated questions for diagnosing autism spectrum disorders.

According to Burns et al., (2017), communication is paramount whereby health care providers who can communicate effectively convey questions and ensure there is a common ground to which both the evaluated child and the parties concerned can understand the history assessment questions. Coming up with different models for different races would be an intelligent decision however time consuming as well as expensive in terms of financing and personnel. However, this would achieve a great outcome for al parties involved. Translators and translation would be an added advantage to the screening, done in native languages as possible (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). There is also behavior modification, which includes different forms of positive and negative reinforcement, and punishment. The questions ought to be setup in a way that is both uniforms for the parties to their origin since there are contradictions on how different races understand reinforcement or punishment.

Effective Treatments for ASD

Various treatments for autism spectrum disorder exist to curb the pre-existing symptoms precipitated by the various subtypes of the disorders. Psychotherapy is the mainstay of therapy and includes applied behavior analysis. Applied behavior therapy   analysis (ABA) aims at improving social communication learning techniques using the reinforcement strategies (Ben-Sasson, Robins & Yom-Tov, 2018). The incorporation of this modality bases on the child’s age, challenges, and strengths, in five categories. The initial phase is the early intensive behavior intervention (EIBI), tailored towards the child’s ability, in their social communication, interaction, functional and their adaptive skills and children younger than 5 years are the targets. The next stage is the pivotal response training, which allows the child to take the lead position during their training (Burns et al., 2017). There is also the discrete trial training which teaches skills using structured task completion and rewards.  A perfect example is the Denver model, which utilizes play-based activities to incorporate numerous goals to undertake at once. There are also verbal behavior interventions to improve communication skills in ASD.

Pharmacotherapy is crucial in the management of the initial symptoms in autism spectrum disorders. Various symptoms targeted include, irritability, aggression, anxiety, self- injurious behavior, impulsivity, insomnia and inattention (Burns et al., 2017)  Atypical and typical Antipsychotics are incorporated.  Haloperidol manages hyperactivity, temper tantrums, withdrawal, stereotypical behaviors, and learning activities. Risperidone is effective in children at least 5 years of age for treatment of irritability in ASD. Others include paliperidone, ziprarodone, quetiapine, lurasidone.  Clinicians also incorporate antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s), alpha 2 agonists, mood stabilizers are also incorporated in the treatment.

 

References

Ben-Sasson, A., Robins, D. L., & Yom-Tov, E. (2018). Risk Assessment for Parents Who Suspect Their Child Has Autism Spectrum Disorder: Machine Learning Approach. Journal of medical Internet research, 20(4), e134. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.9496.

Burns, C. E., Dunn, A. M., Brady, M. A., Barber Starr, N., Blosser, C. G., & Garzon, D. L. (2017). Pediatric primary care (6th ed.). Elsevier

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2018). Screening and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder for Healthcare Providers. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/hcp-screening.html