Nursing Research Final Exam

Papers will be run through and evidence of collaborating with another student(s) will result in a grade of 0 for the assignment. Questions are open ended, short answer/very short essay; students may receive partial credit for responses. Please see the uploaded document for final exam questions and two articles for exam. please cite all sources (online).

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Final Examination


#1. What are the differences between clinical significance and statistical significance and is one more relevant to EBP- if so why? (5 points)


Clinical significance is assigned to results of a study when the treatment is quantifiable and statistical significance is assigned when the results are unlikely to have occurred by chance. Clinical significance is more relevant to EBP because is is quantifiable therefore reliable for use in clinical settings.


#2. Give three examples of how EBP can improve nursing care—be specific in your examples?  (5 points)

  • Nurses can be specific in their care. For example, they can turn the patients in bed after every 2 hours based on studies to prevent pressure ulcers.
  • Can enhance patient satisfaction because of Bedshift reports that incorporate updated test results.
  • It can also enhance patient outcomes given positive reviews of the nursing care. For example, the patient feels more valued by the nurse after the nurse uses EBP when administering medication and inquiring about their adverse effects.


#3: Which is more important: internal validity or external validity. Please provide evidence to support your position. (5 points)


Internal validity because external influences are minimized and shows a more reliable cause and effect relationship between variables tested.


#4: Please describe the methods used in qualitative research to ensure data trustworthiness is established. (5 points)

  • Inquiry audit where an outsider reviews the research process and analysis to ensure consistent findings.
  • Assessing the dependability of the research and its reliability.
  • Assessing the transferability of the research by examining its external validity


#5 Describe the difference between research utilization and EBP? Illustrate an example of each. (5 points)


Research utilization is based on one study while EBP is based on a clinical question answered using in-depth research.

#6. You have recently been named the editor of a new nursing journal. You need to establish guidelines for your reviewers to follow when evaluating manuscripts for possible publication in your journal. Briefly describe the purpose of each of the following sections of a research article:  (5 points)


    1. Abstract- it provides the reader with an understanding of the research and its findings.
    2. Introduction- it connects the reader to the rest of the research document.
    3. Theoretical framework- it allows the researcher to focus on variables under review in the study and the perspective the researcher intends on taking during data analysis and interpretation.
    4. Methods section- it provides the reader with information on how the study was conducted and its validity determined. Includes data collection and analysis methods.
    5. Results section- it presents objective results obtained without an interpretation
    6. Discussion section- it provides interpretation and significance of the finding based on the research question and explain new insights after considering the results obtained.


#7. Describe the differences between experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental research designs in terms of purpose, types, role of the researcher and causality.  (5 points)


Experimental designs entail manipulation of predictor variables and subjects, while non-experimental designs do not allow this manipulation. Quasi-experimental designs on the other hand establish cause and effect relationships without random assignment to the groups.


#8. RCTs are considered the “gold standard” in the hierarchy of evidence. What are strengths of RCTs? Describe instances when RCTs may not be the best sources of evidence or should not be conducted?  (5 points)


The strengths include the following:

  • Minimal bias
  • Minimal recall error because of the use of prospective design.
  • Establishes superiority of a treatment over the other and highlights causal inferences of the treatment’s efficacy.

Instances where RCT is not the best source of evidence would be in trials where the treatments under review are not widely applicable, and when the research study does not involve a comparison of treatments.


#9. In your own words, why is it important for nurses to be involved in research? (5 points)


It is important for nurses to be involved in research because it helps them remain current and updated on the latest practices that are life-saving for the patients.


#10. In developing a research study, it is important to have “buy in” from the stakeholders— why is it important and what can be done in order to facilitate stake holder “buy in”?  (5 points)


It is important because stakeholders uncover risks such as those associated with constraints or requirements in their industry. To facilitate buy-in, researchers should identify relevant stakeholders to their study and discuss the project seeking input.


#11.  PICO is a method used to develop research questions. Please define what PICO stands for and provide an example of a question in PICO format. (5 points)







PICO: What is the effect of yoga on obese women who are on birth control pills that cause weight gain?


#12.  Interpret this correlation table. What variable groups are considered statistically significant? What does it mean?  (5 points)


The statistically significant groups are for those with depressive symptoms and anxiety.


Correlations of the Two Scales with Measures of General Health and

Mental Health (N = 13,917)

Variable                   General                      Anxiety              Depressive                        Illegal

Health                                                    Symptoms                     Behavior

Anxiety                        .06 **



Symptoms                   .23                             .15



Behavior                      .03                              .13                            .11**



Threats                       .07 **                          .30**                          .25                           .42 **

Note: ** p-values < .001



  1. When something is normally distributed, what does that mean? What traditional type of research study design would lend itself to having a normally distributed sample? (5 points)

A normal distribution means that the data closer to the mean are frequently occur compared to data further from the mean. It means that the data has a high probability of confirming the hypothesis. A quantitative research design would lend itself to having a normally distributed sample.



Questions 14- 18 related to CES-d Article


#14. What does the CES-d measure? (5 points)-

It rates how often over a week that patients experience depression symptoms.


#15. What is presented as evidence for reliability? (5 points)

There was high internal consistency and inter-item and inter-scale correlations were higher in patient samples compared to control group. The test-retest correlations were high (0.75)


#16. What is provided as evidence for construct validity? (5 points)

The researchers argue that the CES-D should strongly discriminate comparisons between patients and general population groups. The study is sensitive to severity of depression symptoms and it also reflects the improvements after treatment.


#17. What is provided as evidence for criterion validity? (5 points)

The scores discriminated well among the psychiatric inpatient and general populations samples. There were also low negative to zero interviewer ratings on cooperation and question understanding.


(5 points)



  • It has good reliability and validity
  • It is applicable for a variety of patients with different conditions such as diabetes, elderly, and primary care patients. #18. Please state one or 2 pros and cons on the utility of the instrument?


  • It cannot be used as the only diagnostic measure of depressive symptoms.

Questions 19 and 20- please refer to Article 2.


#19.    Provide a summary of the article in your own words. (5 points)


The study aimed to assess the changes in EPB and nursing practice of nursing students before and after completing an EPB course online. The researchers used the one-group pretest-post-test design in a university in the Midwest. The researchers collected data using the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire before the course and after. They also used descriptive statistics and the t-test to assess mean differences between the pretest and post-test scores. The researchers established that students significantly improved over their pre-test scores.


#20.  Look at table 2.  What statistic is being reported? Interpret the table. Are there any statistically significant findings? If so, what are they? Please interpret what those findings mean? (5 points)


The statistic being reported is the difference in the pretest and post-test EBP scores. The statistically significant findings include the EBPQ and practice subscale scores. These findings mean that there is less than 5% chance that these results are wrong. Therefore, it is likely that test scores and practice subscale scores improved after the EBP online course.