Organization Theory and Design Case Analysis

Organization Theory and Design Case Analysis

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Graceland Memorial Hospital is a healthcare entity with the five critical elements of an organization described by Daft (2013). According to Daft (2013), an organization exhibits the feature of a social entity, implying that it consists of people. The second aspect is that an organization pursues a purpose, meaning that it is goal-oriented. Third, it is deliberately coordinated and structured. As Daft (2013) explains, an organization consists of different and interacting parts and activities. The last element is that an organization is connected, and interacts with, the environment. In this regard, this paper elaborates on the five aspects of an organization with illustrations from the case of Graceland Memorial Hospital Organization Theory and Design Case Analysis.


The description of organizations as social entities means that they have people who interact and share or take up responsibilities. As they continue to communicate, they form specific patterns of behaviour, which eventually form an organization’s culture. Daft, Murphy, and Willmott (2010) explain that the social aspect influences the political climate within organizations. According to Daft et al. (2010), people in organizations should thus not be viewed or treated as technology or machines, since doing so would lead to disasters. However, as Daft et al. (2010) explain, people in organizations exhibit both strengths and weaknesses. Unlike materials and machines, they can interpret things and situations in unique ways as wells resisting or ignoring, individually or collectively (Daft et al., 2010). They may resist in a way that makes it difficult to control them, and it may give demands that are hard to meet.

Graceland Memorial Hospital expresses the traits of a social entity in various ways. First, it comprises of people, including leaders such as Jack Prestwood, Janet Bowers, Erika Thomson, and Margaret Riddell, doctors, and other staff. Through interactions, they have developed patterns of behaviour. For instance, the employees in the organization have been putting on face masks to prevent getting contagious infections. As expressed in many social entities, Ms. Thompson has been representing resistance to the change in organizational policy to meet the guidelines given by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). As explained by Daft et al. (2010), Ms. Thompson has resisted and acted in a way that is difficult to control. She does not consider the possible repercussions of the failure to adhere to the guidelines established by OSHA Organization Theory and Design Case Analysis.

As mentioned, organizations exist to fulfill or pursue specific purposes. Thus, they are goal-oriented. The organization establishes strategies and objectives that enable them to meet their goals. To maintain effectiveness, they frequently evaluate how well they can achieve the goals (Daft et al., 2010). One of the main goals of Graceland Memorial Hospital is to offer quality health services to the patients. To achieve its goal, the organization has established several objectives. One of the purposes is that it has developed strategies for enhancing safety and protecting the health of the staff to ensure that they perform optimally. The organization has done so by providing the team with protective masks and establishing a policy on how they should be worn. Also, the organization has a goal of meeting the guidelines and regulations established by government and professional bodies such as OSHA. However, the purposes of different persons within an organization may differ, as expressed by Ms. Thomson, who does not wish that the organization complies with government organizations. Instead, she wants to maintain the status quo.

The organization is described as a coordinated and structured system since they have structures on how people and activities are run, and responsibilities are delegated. Some organizations, for instance, have hierarchical, bureaucratic structures while others have flat structures. As explained in the fourth element, organizations are systems with many parts that are coordinated, and which influence each other. In the case of Graceland Memorial Hospital, it has different departments or sections, which are coordinated through leaders. Every department has a leader who reports to the president and vice president. The activities are deliberately coordinated at Graceland Memorial Hospital. For instance, the organization has policies that every staff should adhere to in the organization the vice-president and president delegate responsibilities to the departmental leaders, who delegate to the team. However, as Daft et al. (2010) argue, it would be wrong to assume that systems and structures are always useful since they are influenced by the cooperation and ideas of the people involved. In the case of Graceland Memorial Hospital, its effectiveness is affected by Ms. Thompson’s resistance to positive changes.

Last, an organization does not exist in isolation from the environment. Instead, it is linked to the environment, which influences it. The organization also affects the environment. The components of the external environment to the organization are stakeholders such as government authorities, suppliers, customers, other healthcare organizations, surrounding communities, and groups of activists (Daft et al., 2010). In the case of Graceland Memorial Hospital, its external environment comprises of the patients, suppliers of face masks and other requirements, government authorities such as OSHA, volunteers not working in the organization, community members, other healthcare organizations such as the tertiary care teaching hospital, professional bodies, and non-governmental organizations.


Overall, the five key elements of organizations are that they are connected to the external environment, they are social entities, they are deliberately coordinated and structured, they pursue specific goals and consist of interacting parts. Graceland Memorial Hospital has the features mentioned earlier in an organization. The characteristics and traits of organizations cause issues in the case of Graceland Memorial Hospital.


Daft, R. L. (2013). Management. Mason: Cengage Learning

Daft, R, L., Murphy, J., & Willmott, H. (2010). Organization Theory and Design.

Hampshire: Cengage Learning EMEA Organization Theory and Design Case Analysis.