Public Health Nurse-Topic 2- Population Health and Healthy people 2020 Analysis Paper
Public Health Nurse-Topic 2- Population Health and Healthy people 2020 Analysis Paper
|Population Health and Healthy People 2020 Analysis|
For this assignment, you will select a Healthy People 2020 goal and consider the role of public health nurses in achieving this goal. Select a goal and a specific population that is impacted by this goal and the health issue it targets. In a 1,250-1,500 word paper, provide an analysis of the population and discuss how the goal and related health issue affects them. Include the following:
Describe the issue and the population that it affects. Why is this a vulnerable population? Include demographics of the population and why this issue is prevalent in this population.
- Analyze the vitality and social determinants of health for the population. Consider indicators of social and economic conditions, health resources, environmental conditions related to health, social functioning, and attitude toward health care.
- Discuss a proposed intervention and discuss how its benefits the target population. Consider any drawbacks or shortcomings of the intervention as well. Include in your discussion evidence that the intervention is in line with the core functions and ten essential public health services.
Cite at least five resources in your response.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
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Data from the CDC indicate that obesity is a significant public health issue in the United States In contemporary times. In its 2017- 2018 report, the CDC noted that the prevalence of obesity was 42.4% (CDC, 2021). This represented nearly a 12% increase in the prevalence of obesity in the US in the past two decades. The increasing incidence of obesity has therefore drawn the attention of various public health agencies in the US. The Healthy People 2020 provides the goal related to nutrition and weight status to address the health challenge of obesity. The Healthy People 2020 goal is to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and promote health through the achievement and maintenance of healthy body weights and consumption of healthful diets (Healthypeople.gov, 2020). This paper explores the healthy people 2020 goal of nutrition & weight status and evaluates the role that public health nurses can play to contribute to the achievement of this goal.
Issue and the Population it affects
The HP 2020 goal of nutrition and weight status is related to the obesity health issue. The nutrition weight status goal intends to promote healthful nutrition and a healthy weight across the American population. One of the populations that is a target of the HP 2020 goal of nutrition and weight status is the African American population. This is because the African American population has the highest prevalence of obesity in the US, with an estimated 49.6% prevalence rate in 2018 (Barrington et al., 2020). These statistics indicate that nearly half of the African American adult population is obese. There is a significant need for public health nurses to develop different interventions that can help to reduce the prevalence of obesity among African-American adults.
According to Fruh (2017), obesity is the abnormal or excessive accumulation of fat in an individual that may eventually impair their health. Body mass index is there for the standard measurement of classifying overweight and obese adults. Adults with a BMI of greater than or equal to 30 are classified as being obese (Gadde et al., 2018). Obesity is associated with numerous adverse health consequences, including diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders such as osteoarthritis, cardiovascular diseases including stroke, and some cancers such as colon, breast, ovarian, and kidney cancer (Fruh, 2017). According to Gadde et al. (2018), the risk of adverse health consequences among overweight and obese individuals increases with an increase in body mass index.
There are many factors that have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity in the African-American population. According to Barrington et al. (2020), a significant proportion of African-Americans comes from low-income households. Individuals from low-income households are therefore less likely to afford a healthy diet made up of fruits and vegetables that might be more expensive compared to less healthy fast foods. Most low-income African-American families lack access to affordable healthy food and consume cheaper unhealthy foods, increasing their risk of being overweight and obese (Winkler et al., 2016). Most low-income African-American families also live in neighborhoods that do not have access to social amenities to promote a healthy diet and subsequently adequate nutrition and healthy weight. Most low-income families live in neighborhoods that do not have access to farm markets and groceries. The lack of access to adequate farm markets and groceries leaves African-American families with fewer food choices. It exposes them to consuming unhealthy fast foods that contribute to the onset of obesity (Sharpe et al., 2016). Low-income African-American families also live in neighborhoods that do not have physical amenities such as parks and walkways that people can use to exercise. Most African-American individuals adopt a sedentary lifestyle and are never involved in physical activities, which increases their risk of being overweight and obese (Oraka et al., 2020). Societal and cultural norms also contribute significantly to African Americans being overweight and obese. The cultural methods of preparing food among African-Americans, such as grilling and preparing foods with much oil and salt, increase the risk of overweight and obesity (Barrington et al., 2020).
Social Determinants of Health for the Population
Social and economic determinants can contribute significantly towards African-Americans reaching the healthy people 2020 goal of nutrition and weight and avoiding being overweight and obese. The average household income of African American families is $58,985, one of the lowest in the US (Oraka et al., 2020). This highlights that most African-American families cannot afford a healthy diet that might be more expensive and afford fast foods and other unhealthy options that increase their risk of being obese. Low-income African-American families may also rely on food assistance programs due to poverty, where the choice of food is restricted to only what is donated (Sharpe et al., 2016). Some donated food items are not healthy.
Related to environmental conditions, low-income African-American families are also more likely to reside in low-income neighborhoods with no social amenities that can promote health. Most African American families reside in food deserts that do not have access to farm markets and groceries (Winkler et al., 2016). Most African American families also live a sedentary lifestyle as they lack access to gyms, walkways, and parks to perform physical activities (Barrington et al., 2020). On the other hand, social functioning factors such as food preparation skills and societal, cultural norms also contribute to the prevalence of obesity in the African-American population. African American population has a culture of preparing foods such as soul food with high salt and oil contents, which increases their susceptibility to obesity(Oraka et al., 2020). Related to health resources and attitude towards health care, the African American population is presently oriented. Most African-Americans are likely to visit healthcare providers to receive treatment for diseases that have already shown symptoms. Most African-Americans are not likely to seek preventative health care services such as nutrition and weight control services. The lack of utilization of preventative health care services increases the susceptibility of the African-American population to being overweight/obese and the adverse health outcomes associated with these conditions (Sharpe et al., 2016).
An ideal intervention that public health nurses can introduce to mitigate obesity among the African American population includes creating, championing, and implementing nutrition and physical activity programs (Agha & Agha, 2017). Public health nurses can be involved in drawing up policies that will promote healthful nutrition and the adoption of physical activity in African American communities. Public health nurses also need to champion these policies through advocacy efforts directed to different local authorities. Finally, public health nurses can play a role in the supervision of nutrition and physical activity programs targeting African-American communities (Agha & Agha, 2017). These programs can significantly educate African Americans on taking a healthy diet and remaining physically active as the main tools to deal with obesity.
The shortcomings of the intervention of public health nurses to create, champion, and implement nutrition and physical activity programs in African-American communities would include time, lack of political goodwill, and lack of financial resources (Agha & Agha, 2017). The process of advocacy, introduction, and implementation of new policies is tasking and time-consuming, which might be a significant challenge for a public health nurse. On the other hand, a public health nurse introducing a new policy such as introducing nutritional and physical activity programs in African-American communities may lack the political goodwill from the local authorities. Finally, despite enjoying political goodwill from some local authorities to implement nutrition and physical activity programs, restrictions in financial resources, especially in rural localities, may be a significant challenge to a public health nurse (Agha & Agha, 2017).
The intervention of creating, championing, and implementing nutrition and physical activity programs in African American communities to reduce the prevalence of obesity is in line with the core functions and ten essential public health services. According to CDC (2020), one of the essential public health services is creating, championing, and implementing plans, policies, and laws that positively impact public health.
Obesity is one of the most significant public health challenges facing the US presently. Healthy people, 2020 goal of nutrition and weight status seeks to address the challenge of overweight and obesity. Obesity is a significant health challenge in that it increases the risk of adverse health consequences, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, and cancer. In the US, the African American population has the highest prevalence of obesity. Public health nurses can therefore contribute significantly to mitigating the health challenge of obesity in African-American communities. One of the ideal interventions that public health nurses can adopt to mitigate the prevalence of obesity in African American population is creating, championing, and implementing nutrition and physical activity programs.
Agha, M., & Agha, R. (2017). The rising prevalence of obesity: part B—public health policy solutions. International Journal of Surgery: Oncology, 2(7), 19. https://doi.org/10.1097/ij9.0000000000000019
Barrington, D. S., James, S. A., & Williams, D. R. (2020). Socioeconomic Correlates of Obesity in African-American and Caribbean-Black Men and Women. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 8(2), 422–432. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-020-00798-4
CDC. (2020). CDC – 10 Essential Public Health Services – CSTLTS. Cdc.Gov. https://www.cdc.gov/publichealthgateway/publichealthservices/essentialhealthservices.html
CDC. (2021, February 11). Obesity is a Common, Serious, and Costly Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
Fruh, S. M. (2017). Obesity: Risk factors, complications, and strategies for sustainable long‐term weight management. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 29(S1), S3–S14. https://doi.org/10.1002/2327-6924.12510
Gadde, K. M., Martin, C. K., Berthoud, H. R., & Heymsfield, S. B. (2018). Obesity: Pathophysiology and Management. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 71(1), 69–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.11.011
Healthypeople.gov. (2020). Nutrition and Weight Status | Healthy People 2020. https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/nutrition-and-weight-status
Oraka, C. S., Faustino, D. M., Oliveira, E., Teixeira, J. A. M., Souza, A. S. P. D., & Luiz, O. D. C. (2020). Race and obesity in the black female population: a scoping review. Saúde e Sociedade, 29(3). https://doi.org/10.1590/s0104-12902020191003
Sharpe, D. K., Collins McNeil, J., & Jones, J. W. (2016). Contributing Factors to Obesity in African American Children within the United States. Epidemiology: Open Access, 06(06). https://doi.org/10.4172/2161-1165.1000277
Winkler, M. R., Bennett, G. G., & Brandon, D. H. (2016). Factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls in the United States. Women & Health, 57(2), 208–248. https://doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2016.1159267