Researches Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Development.

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Development


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Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Development

Child development is a significant aspect that all parents should pay attention to. Children exhibit different personalities and behaviors as they grow, which are significant yardsticks in determining children’s well-being. Young children are naturally active and energetic and often show less attention span, whether healthy or with disabilities. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is achronic incapacitating ailmentin child developmentportrayed by inattentiveness, hyperactivity, andimpulsivity. There are three types of ADHD, which include inattention, hyperactivity, and the combined type. ADHD is often diagnosed and identified at age 3, mainly at preschool age. Children with ADHD have been studied to comprise 5.29% globally, and the condition is usually higher in boys than in girls. Boys usually show greater activity levels than girls, who may be quietly inactive. The condition is also more prevalent in less than 12 years compared to adolescents. have shown that the condition decreases as age increases (Wilens & Spencer, 2010)

Symptoms of Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder

Studies reveal that Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder is categorized by various symptoms which can or cannot be outgrown at later stages of life. Children with ADHD have shown greater failure in paying attention to details, listening to others, difficulty in remaining in one place for some time, and also difficulty in shifting from one activity that interests them most to another. Children with ADHD also blurts out answers even before the questioners finishes asking questions, they fidget with their hands or feet and squirm in their seat. Kids with Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder have also shown a wide range of moods; that is, they exhibit mood swings and are sometimes frustrating. Researches Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Development.

Causes of Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder

Studies reveal that there are no clear roots of Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, some factors have been studied and have shown a close correlation with Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder. These include genetic factors in which blood relatives or parents who suffered ADHD have greater chances of giving birth to children with Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder; hence, the ADHD condition can be acquired. Also, environmental factors have been linked to Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder. Studies reveal that exposure to environmental toxins such as heavy metals pose a great risk to a child’s development and increases the chances of Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder. Also, children who have problems with the central nervous system have shown Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder. Motherly drug use, alcoholism, and cigarette smoking also expose the fetus to toxins and premature birth, facilitating Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder in kids (Wilens & Spencer, 2010.

Effects of Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder in child development

Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder has a wide range of effects in children, which often carries adolescent and adulthood stages of life. According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), ¼ of kids with Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder often have educationincapacities following coexisting psychiatric disorders. The learning disabilities exhibited in these children may include the ability to read, write, and understand the content. The learning disability exhibited by these children also includes the disability to communicate effectively, hence, experiencing more obstacles in the path to academic success. ADHD children have shown difficulty in sitting still and controlling their impulses which makes it more difficult for them to do well in the classroom. Kids with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder scuffle with assurance andbotheredrelations.

In many cases, these children are troublesome and frustrating, making them discriminated against and unaccepted by fellow children. Discrimination triggers low self-esteem and can lead to weird acts such as suicide in older children. ADHD has a known negative effect on academic performance and behavior function in children. Since these children are extremely active, they tend to sustain more injuries and visit health care more often than healthy children. ADHD sometimes tends to pose a burden to the government, especially in the criminal system. Children with ADHD exhibit antisocial disorders such as stealing, fighting, and also drug use, which are criminal offenses hence, the burden on the criminal justice system. Studies have shown that children with ADHD usually show anxiety, conduct problems, suicidal behaviors, antisocial personality disorder, mood disorder, oppositional deficient disorder, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome (Orban et al., 2018) Researches Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Development.

Treatment of ADHD

Several treatment strategies have been suggested to contain ADHD, including non-pharmacological, pharmacological, and psychosocial treatment. Non-pharmacological treatment includes educational remedy which involves specialized educational plan such as hiring a tutor to help the child with education skills and also parent training to facilitate academic performance. Academic performance can also be enhanced by placing the ADHD child close to the teacher ina classroom setting to facilitate attention. Teachers can encourage positive behaviors in the classroom by employing reward systems such as rewarding ADHD children for positive behavior. Teachers can also increase academic engagement and teach children time management and planning skills to improve their academic performance. Another strategy involves individual and family psychotherapy to help the family understand ways to enhance positive behavior in their child effectively. Also, eliminating distractions in a learning environment facilitates attention, hence, good performance. However, pharmacotherapy which involves the use of medication, remains a mainstay in treating ADHD in children (Harrison et al., 2019) Researches Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Development.


Harrison, J. R., Soares, D. A., Rudzinski, S., & Johnson, R. (2019). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and classroom-based interventions: Evidence-based status, effectiveness, and moderators of effects in single-case design research. Review of Educational Research89(4), 569-611.

Orban, S. A., Rapport, M. D., Friedman, L. M., Eckrich, S. J., & Kofler, M. J. (2018). Inattentive behavior in boys with ADHD during classroom instruction: The mediating role of working memory processes. Journal of abnormal child psychology46(4), 713-727.

Wilens, T. E., & Spencer, T. J. (2010). Understanding attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder from childhood to adulthood. Postgraduate medicine122(5), 97-109.